Diabetic Retinopathy | Divya Sirsikar

Published by: theblogbee, Sun Jun 05 2022

diabetic retinopathy divya sirsikar ophthalmology diabetes mellitus occular retina

Watch the Video Below For Detailed Explanation It refers to retinal changes seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. Etiopathogenesis: Risk factor 1. Duration of diabetes 2.sex...more in females 3. Poor metabolic c┬Żntrl 4.heredity 5.pregnancy 6.hypertension 7.smoking, obesity, hyperlipidemia Classification 1.nonproliferative dibetic retinopathy NPDR Features- microaneurysm, retinal haemorrhage, dark-blot haemorrhage, hard exudates, oedema, venous abnormalities, intra retinal microvascular abnormality(IRMA) 4 types Mild- microaneurysm, hard-soft exudates Moderate-microaneurysm, IRMA,exudates Severe-a. 4 quadrants of microaneurysm b. 2 quadrants of venous beading c. 1 quadrant of IRMA changes Very severe- same as severe. 2. Proliferative diabtc retinopathy PDR -common in juvenile diabetes pt. -occurence of neovascularization along with very severe changes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy Types: on the basis of high risk character A. PDR without HRCs B. PDR with HRCs 3. Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic macular oedema occurs due to increased permeability of retinal capillaries it is termed as clinically significant macular oedema (CSME) Types 1. Focal exudative maculopathy- haemorrhage, oedema, microaneurysm, hard exudates 2. Diffuse exudative maculopathy- diffuse retinal oedema, few exudates 3. Ischaemic maculopathy- same as focal with marked loss of vision 4. Mixed maculopathy- combined 1 and 3. 4. Advanced diabetic eye diseases - end result of uncontrolled proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Complications: a..vitreous haemorrhage b..tractional retinal detachment c..neovascular glaucoma Investigations: Urine and blood sugar examination Fundus fluorescein angiography Management 1. Screening for diabetic retinopathy 2. Medical treatment A. Control of systemic factors B. Role of pharmacological modulation C. Role of intravitreal steroids 3. Photocoagulation Argon or diode laser used A. Macular photocoagulation -focal treatment -grid treatment

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